Basic Principles of SmarCards

ISO7816-1 specifies the physical characteristics of integrated circuit like the limits to
X-rays, UV, electromagnetic field, ambient temperature etc. Additionally, properties
of smart card in flexion and robustness of contacts are specified. Important mainly for
card manufactures.

ISO 7816-2 defines size, location and function of the card contacts. Vcc – power
supply, RST – card reset, CLK – external clock signal, GND – ground, Vpp –
programming power supply for older types of EEPROM (not used now), I/O – data
communication, 2 contacts reserved for future use.

ISO7816-3 specifies communication protocol between smart card and reader on the
level of the electrical signals.
• Protocol T=0 – byte-oriented protocol. Older than T1, designed for maximal
simplicity and minimal memory requirements. Error detection only on parit
bits level. Used in GSM cards.
• Protocol T=1 – asynchronous, half-duplex, block-oriented. Support layers
separation (transport layer in OSI model).

ISO7816-4 specifies:
• Content of messages, commands and responses as are transported to card and
back.
• Structure and content of historical bytes send as response after RESET
command (ATR).
• Methods for accessing files and data on the card and algorithms offered by
card.
• Methods for the secure messaging.

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